Sunday 14 May 2023

THE Labyrinth of Egypt Hawara Fayoum

 THE LABYRINTH 

Petrie excavated the ruins of an extensive and well-structured temple complex in front of the south side of the king‟s pyramid, probably the Labyrinth mentioned by ancient travelers, such as Herodotus, Diodorus Siculus, Strabo, and Pliny. According to Diodorus, Daedalus was so impressed by this monument during his journey through Egypt that he decided to build a labyrinth for Minos in Crete on the same model.55 In spite of frequent attempts, by Petrie, Michalowski, Lloyd and others to elicit the former aspect of the Labyrinth from the Greek descriptions, it remains difficult to reconcile the texts with the few surviving remains of the temple. Apparently, the construction of the temple was started by Amenemhat III, but several inscribed fragments record the name of the early deification of Amenemhat III, each successive king added his own monument to honor his great predecessor.

The layout of the temple could not be precisely constructed because of the severe destruction; however, it probably consists of an inner part with sacrifice hall which was in the back part of the temple near the south side of the pyramid. In front of it was the complex of columned halls, columned courtyards, porticos, colonnades, chambers, and passageways. To the south lay another extensive open courtyard.

The unusual size of the Labyrinth (28 000 m2) indicates that it was not an ordinary temple. Strabo mentioned that the temple housed a number of halls as many as there were provinces (nomes) in Egypt (42 nomes) to house the major gods representing these nomes inside the temple each one in a separate chamber. Petrie has discovered the remains of limestone statues of two gods, Sobek and Hathor, in the halls supposed to have been honored by the deities of these provinces. During the excavation of the irrigation canal which cuts through the temple remains, a limestone statue of Amenemhat III has been uncovered. Eventually, the whole temple complex, the pyramid and a small north chapel were surrounded by a rectangular enclosure wall which is entered by a causeway like the valley temple. However most of this part has not been excavated yet.

THE TOMB OF NEFERUPTAH

It is situated two kilometres to the southeast of Hawara Pyramid. It was later given the form of a pyramid. Neferuptah pink granite sarcophagus has been discovered there in 1956 containing the remains of her body and of her rich funerary equipment, everything much perished by subsoil water except the objects made of stone and precious metals.53 It was initially thought that Neferuptah had been buried with her father due to the discovery of remains of a second wooden coffin and an alabaster alter bearing her name in the king‟s burial chamber, however, her name was found on the sarcophagus in the tomb southeast of the pyramid and was also on other objects from her burial equipment. The body itself was not found there, however, a few pieces of the mummy‟s binding were discovered on which microscopic remains of skin were found.

THE TOMB OF NEFERUPTAH hawara fayoum

THE TOMB OF NEFERUPTAH hawara fayoum

THE TOMB OF NEFERUPTAH hawara fayoum


CEMETERIES

Pits and tombs to the north of the pyramid: In a vast area to the north of the pyramid, the pits and rock-cut chambers of Middle Kingdom officials were found, most of them had been robbed, and many had been reused from the 23rd dynasty onwards there are only few traces of New Kingdom date.59 Crocodile Burials: Mummified crocodiles personifying the god Sobek, the principle god of the Fayoum region, were buried 500 m to the northeast of the pyramid.

Greco-Roman Tombs: The best-preserved discoveries of the cemeteries of Hawara were made, however, in the Greco-Roman tombs, the mummies being provided with a portrait of the dead in the form of a mask or of a painted tablet, the so-called Fayoum Portraits.


Friday 23 December 2016

Amenemhet III (king of Egypt) the greatest king in Fayoum Labyrinth of Egypt


Amenemhat III, also spelled Amenemhet III, was a pharaoh of the Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt. He ruled from c.1860 BC to c.1814 BC, the highest known date being found in a papyrus dated to Regnal Year 46, I Akhet 22 of his rule. His reign is regarded as the golden age of the Middle Kingdom. He may have had a long coregency (of 20 years) with his father, Senusret III

Amenemhet III (king of Egypt) the greatest king in Fayoum Labyrinth of Egypt

Amenemhet III (king of Egypt) the greatest king in Fayoum Labyrinth of Egypt

Amenemhet III (king of Egypt) the greatest king in Fayoum Labyrinth of Egypt

Amenemhet III (king of Egypt) the greatest king in Fayoum Labyrinth of Egypt

Amenemhet III (king of Egypt) the greatest king in Fayoum Labyrinth of Egypt


Hawara: The pyramid Temple of Amenemhet near the entrance of the Fayum. The great enclosure to the south was known in ancient times as "The Labyrinth". This temple was one of the greatest tourists attractions during the Greaco-Roman period. The labyrinth is known from descriptions by Herodotus, Strabo, and Pliny the Elder.

Amenemhet III (king of Egypt) the greatest king in Fayoum Labyrinth of Egypt